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Associated Dates: 11000 – 10000 Y.B.P.


ABOVE: CROWFIELD01: variations in shape within the Crowfield type

(source: Deller, B. and C. Ellis - 1984 Crowfield Fluted Points. KEWA 84-5.5.)

SIZE: Crowfield points range from ca. 40-65 mm in length (mean 54), 22 to 35 in maximum width (mean 30.8), 3-5 in thickness (mean 4.6) and 13-23 (mean 17.9) in basal width. Basal concavities are shallow (0.5-4; mean 2.1).

SHAPE: The points have small pointed ears and lack fishtails. Lateral basal edges markedly expand from the base to a maximum width around or (if the point is largely unresharpened) above, mid-point. The points are very broad and thin (width to thickness ratios of ca. 5-8 to 1) with very flat biconvex to plano-convex cross-sections.

FLAKING: The points exhibit a collateral retouch which does not tend to consistently terminate at any one point on the biface surface such as the mid-line. Because of the oblique lateral basal edge orientation vis a vis the mid-line of the point, retouch tends to be somewhat oblique from each edge (almost a "chevron" pattern) near the base.

The points are very well-fluted. Flutes tend to extend from 1/2 to 3/4 of point length and are often multiple (2 to 3 flutes to a face). The lateral flute edges can expand markedly from the base. Bases are consistently finished by a short, abrupt, parallel retouch in the basal concavity. Lateral basal edges and concavities are lightly ground.

RAW MATERIAL: At the type site, Onondaga chert was predominantly used. However, specimens from the type site and other areas of Ontario are on Collingwood (Fossil Hill formation) chert.

DISTRIBUTION: These points are found throughout the central to eastern Great Lakes area. Some points from the Reagen site in Vermont (Ritchie,1953) may be of this type.

AGE AND CULTURAL AFFILIATION: No C-14 dates are available for Crowfield points. They are believed to be the latest fluted point form in the area and to date to ca. 10,500-10,400 B.P.

REMARKS: Some points have resharpening which forms straight tip edges oblique to the point mid-lire. With the markedly expanding basal edges, this gives the points a pentagonal or five-sided appearance. A few points which are probably specialized cutting tools have distinct shoulders and more extensive resharpening on one lateral edge. Crowfield points are best known from the type site west of London (Deller and Ellis, 1984). However, other sites such as Udora (Storck,1982) have been reported from south-central Ontario.

CROWFIELD POINT THUMBNAIL GALLERY (62 images: 31 source images/31

Crowfield 01 Crowfield 02 Crowfield 03
Crowfield 04 Crowfield 05 Crowfield 06
Crowfield 07 Crowfield 08 Crowfield 09
Crowfield 10 Crowfield 11 Crowfield 12
Crowfield 13 Crowfield 14 Crowfield 15
Crowfield 16 Crowfield 17 Crowfield 18
Crowfield 19 Crowfield 20 Crowfield 21
Crowfield 23 Crowfield 24 Crowfield 25
Crowfield 30 Crowfield 31


End of Crowfield Thumbnails - Complete



ABOVE: CROWFIELD02: a Crowfield point; northern New York ; 1.43 inches (35.75mm); see two additional images following

ABOVE: ABOVE: CROWFIELD03: Crowfield point; second of three images

ABOVE: CROWFIELD04: Crowfield point; third of three images

End of Crowfield - 30% complete



Associated Dates: 5000 – 3000 Y.B.P.



ABOVE, LEFT: CUL01: Culbreath points; no details
ABOVE, RIGHT: CUL02: Culbreath point; no details

General Description: A Florida point type, (Bullen 1975): “A medium to large basal-notched point and could very well be the same type as Citrus with a different basal shape. Found associated with Citrus, Lafayette and Broward in same sites made of the same piece of heat-altered chert or coral as the above makes me believe the Culbreath is just a different shape of the Citrus idea. The Culbreath shape has an ovate blade with two u-shaped notches in the base. The stem will be parallel sided and usually squared on stem end. Barbs can be short or long, rounded or pointed.” See Citrus, Lafayette, Broward and Hernando. (TEXT SOURCE: Son Anderson)

CULBREATH POINT THUMBNAIL GALLERY (88 images: 44 source images/44 thumbnails)

Culbreath 01 Culbreath 02 Culbreath 03
Culbreath 04 Culbreath 05 Culbreath 06
Culbreath 07 Culbreath 08 Culbreath 09
Culbreath 10 Culbreath 11 Culbreath 12



























End of Culbreath Thumbnails - 12 of 44 complete


ABOVE: CUL03: Culbreath point; near Palarka, Putnam co., Florida; 2.06 inches (51.5mm)

ABOVE: CUL04: Culbreath point; Hernando Co., Florida

ABOVE: CUL05: Culbreath point; central Florida

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